Background: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is characterized by the presence of clonal plasma cells. These often result in complications including bone destruction, hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, and anaemia. Induction with a triplet or quadruplet regimen followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been the standard of care for transplant eligible patients to achieve durable remission.
Purpose: This is a retrospective analytical study to determine the outcome of Multiple Myeloma patients who underwent ASCT in Ampang Hospital.
Materials and Methods: We included a 5-year cohort of patients transplanted from 1st July 2014 to 30th June 2019. Data were obtained through electronic medical records. Prognostic factors for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using simple and multiple Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. All analyses were done using software R version 3.6.2 with validated statistical packages.
Results: 139 patients were analyzed. The median age at transplant was 56 years old and 56.1% are males (n=78). The most common subtype is IgG Kappa (n=67, 48.2%). Only 93 patients in which the International Staging System (ISS) could be determined, and among them, 33.3% of patients (n=31) have advanced stage Ⅲ disease. The most common induction received before ASCT was a bortezomib based regimen and/or an immunomodulatory (IMiD) based regimen. 63.3% of patients achieved at least a very good partial response (VGPR) before ASCT. Most patients received myeloablative conditioning (MAC) (n=119, 85.6%). The mean cell dose is 3.68×106/kg. The median time to engraftment was 11 days for both platelet and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). With the median follow-up of 17.3 (range, 6.2-33.4) months, the median OS and PFS were not reached. The 1-year and 2-year PFS were 75% (95% CI 66-82%) and 52% (95% CI 42-62%), respectively. The 1-year and 2-year OS were 82% (95% CI 74-88%) and 70% (95% CI 60-78%), respectively. 6 patients (4.3%) had transplant-related mortality (TRM). IgA subtype was found to adversely affect PFS. Maintenance therapy and the absence of renal impairment was associated with better PFS and OS.
Discussion and Conclusions: Our study found that ASCT following induction treatment is safe and beneficial to achieve a deeper remission status. In our study, the addition of maintenance therapy is associated with an improved outcome in PFS and OS.