Hematopoietic cellular transplantation (HCT) has impacted medicine beyond simply treating certain diseases.Allogeneic HCT was the first documented successful immunological cellular therapy. Its usage continues to increase. The immunological disparity between donor and recipient has been associated with better antitumor efficacy as well as immunological toxicities. Through active clinical trials and research, considerable improvements in HCT therapy have been made over the past 50 years. The HCT international outcomes registry has considerably contributed to these improvements by identifying factors that could never be studied by a single center. With the use of unrelated donors, international collaboration increased as donor cell access through registries was not inhibited by international boundaries. HCT as a field pioneered the development of organizations for self-regulation that were assessing the entire program as an integrated whole rather than simply assessing facilities and providers separately.